I did some homework and checked what happens to a number of fonts. Here’s the result:
1. Not embedded; replaced by very different (sanserif) font, probably DejaVu Sans: Linux Libertine O, Adobe Caslon Pro, Minion Pro, ITC Cerigo Std Book, Garamond Premr Pro Smbd;
2. Not embedded; replaced by similar font (Times New Roman in a slightly smaller point size, I think): Adobe Garamond Pro
3. Embedded: Lucida Grande, Gill Sans, Times New Roman, American Typewriter, Futura, Helvetica, Deja VuSans, DejaVu Serif, Arial Narrow, Tahoma, Verdana, Cochin, AppleGothic, URW Palladio IT.
No system in there, as far as I can see: some Adobe fonts don’t embed while others do. Could it have something to do with "funny" font names? I’ve read somewhere that OpenOffice has problems handling fonts with less common style names, so this might be a related matter, who knows.
For example, public domain font Linux Libertine O doesn’t show up on OO’s font list in Regular style, only Bold, Italic, and Bold Italic. I opened this Linux Libertine O Regular in FontForge and generated a new font from it under the name "MyLib". That one does show up in OO’s font list (I didn’t generate the whole family, just Regular), but it doesn’t embed in PDFs either.
In Apple’s built-in text editor TextEdit, I can access Linux Libertine O Regular normally.
For the record, the style names of the fonts that were not embedded:
Adobe Caslon Pro: Regular, Italic, Semibold, Semibold Italic, Bold, Bold Italic.
Garamond Premier Pro: Regular, Italic, Semibold, Semibold Italic.
ITC Cerigo Std: Book, Book Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic.
Linux Libertine O: Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic.
Minion Pro: Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Semibold, Semibold Italic, Bold, Bold Cond, Bold Cond Italic, Bold Italic.
Adobe Garamond Pro (which did not embed but was at least replaced by a similar font) has the standard styles: Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic.
Thanks for that link, RoryOF. That text suggests that OpenOffice is behaving like this because of legal constraints. But when I use Apple OS’s built-in PDF printer in TextEdit, all fonts are embedded without exception. Does that mean Apple is breaking the law?
There’s one other thing that might contain a clue: In general, the list of fonts in TextEdit is sorted by alphabet, but at the end it starts over from #/A for some reason I don’t know, and in that small list I find Adobe Caslon Pro, Adobe Garamond Pro, and ITC Cerigo Std -- three of the problem cases. On the other hand, problem fonts Garamond Premier Pro, Linux Libertine O, and Minion are not there; they are in the first (big) list. And when I tried other fonts from that "appendix" list, they embedded normally (AppleGothic, URW Palladio IT).
OpenOffice 3.0 on MacOS 10.4.11