The file is corrupted on the USB device, for reasons no one has yet isolated definitively. It may be due to bad USB discipline, such as removing the device before delayed writes to it have taken place. Best advice is _never_ to work direct to a USB device, always to work locally, transferring the finished file to or from the USB unit and removing the USB device using the system's USB removal protocol.
The Ascii filter options occur because OOo is unable to read the detail of the file; in the circumstances of a corrupt file no selection of these options will help. If you are offered the Ascii filter selections go with the defaults offered. If the file displays as ######### then it is corrupted. If you get mixed garbage, then there is hope for using filter selection.
You misunderstand the recovery option of OOo: this is not for recovering a corrupted file. If OOo terminates abnormally (system or program crash), on next restart it may recognise this and offer to recover the file in progress at the time of the crash. How successful this is is variable, as often temporary files in use at crashtime may not have had a complete record of the document state at that time.
As you have found no OOo backup and no temporary files almost certainly your file is destroyed beyond recovery.
Apache OpenOffice 4.1.3 on Xubuntu 16.04 (mostly 64 bit version) and infrequently on Win2K/XP
14 October 2016 was Pooh's 90th birthday