No application on any system "opens" mdb. Not even Access does that. Access uses some driver to read from a mdb file analog to a file system.
Micorosoft publishes tools for its own operating system, so database tools can read and write stored row sets with the help of drivers like MS Access can read and write other vendors databases with appropriate drivers provided. Under Windows you install that set of MS drivers and connect your database tool of choice to work with it.
Microsoft will never publish anything like that operating systems other than Windows, even if they could do so within days. They don't do it for strategic reasons and one should always respect those decisions and avoid all proprietary technologies where possible.
For Linux there is a set of tools to dump your own data from mdb into text files, so you can rebuild a new database and fill it with your own property locked into the mdb file. The team which tried to develop a Linux driver for direct read and write access (of course without any support from MS) apparently gave up after months of hard work since their last product destroyed some databases sometimes. For MS this would be almost zero effort but they will not do it.
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Ubuntu 12.04, OpenOffice 4.x & LibreOffice 4.x